Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are essential to patient function and quality of life after surgery. In older surgical patients, the incidence of preoperative IADL dependence has not been well characterized in the literature. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled incidence of preoperative IADL dependence and the associated adverse outcomes in the older surgical population.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
MEDLINE, MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print and In-Process, In-Data-Review & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase/Embase Classic, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ClinicalTrials.Gov, the WHO ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) were searched for relevant articles from 1969 to April 2022.
Patients aged ≥60 years old undergoing surgery with preoperative IADL assessed by the Lawton IADL Scale.
The primary outcome was the pooled incidence of preoperative IADL dependency. Additional outcomes included post-operative mortality, postoperative delirium [POD], functional status improvement, and discharge disposition.
Twenty-one studies (n = 5690) were included. In non-cardiac surgeries, the pooled incidence of preoperative IADL dependence was 37% (95% CI: 26.0%, 48.0%) among 2909 patients. Within cardiac surgeries, the pooled incidence of preoperative IADL dependence was 53% (95% CI: 24.0%, 82.0%) among 1074 patients. Preoperative IADL dependence was associated with an increased risk of postoperative delirium than those without IADL dependence (44.9% vs 24.4, OR 2.26; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.59; I2: 0%; P = 0.0005).
There is a high incidence of IADL dependence in older surgical patients undergoing non-cardiac and cardiac surgery. Preoperative IADL dependence was associated with a two-fold risk of postoperative delirium. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of using the IADL scale preoperatively as a predictive tool for postoperative adverse outcomes.
Delirium, systematic review and meta-analysis; Functional dependence; Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL); Older patients; Preoperative assessment.